Disequilibrium of terrestrial ecosystem CO<sub>2</sub> budget caused by disturbance-induced emissions and non-CO<sub>2</sub> carbon export flows: a global model assessment

Ito, Akihiko

The global carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems is chiefly determined by major flows of carbon dioxide (CO2) such as photosynthesis and respiration, but various minor flows exert considerable influence in determining carbon stocks and their turnover. This study assessed the effects of eight minor carbon flows on the terrestrial carbon budget using a process-based model, the Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT), which included non-CO2 carbon flows, such as methane and biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and subsurface carbon exports and disturbances such as biomass burning, land-use changes, and harvest activities. The range of model-associated uncertainty was evaluated through parameter-ensemble simulations and the results were compared with corresponding observational and modeling studies. In the historical period of 1901–2016, the VISIT simulation indicated that the minor flows substantially influenced terrestrial carbon stocks, flows, and budgets. The simulations estimated mean net ecosystem production in 2000–2009 as 3.21±1.1 Pg C yr−1 without minor flows and 6.85±0.9 Pg C yr−1 with minor flows. Including minor carbon flows yielded an estimated net biome production of 1.62±1.0 Pg C yr−1 in the same period. Biomass burning, wood harvest, export of organic carbon by water erosion, and BVOC emissions had impacts on the global terrestrial carbon budget amounting to around 1 Pg C yr−1 with specific interannual variabilities. After including the minor flows, ecosystem carbon storage was suppressed by about 440 Pg C, and its mean residence time was shortened by about 2.4 years. The minor flows occur heterogeneously over the land, such that BVOC emission, subsurface export, and wood harvest occur mainly in the tropics, and biomass burning occurs extensively in boreal forests. They also differ in their decadal trends, due to differences in their driving factors. Aggregating the simulation results by land-cover type, cropland fraction, and annual precipitation yielded more insight into the contributions of these minor flows to the terrestrial carbon budget. Considering their substantial and unique roles, these minor flows should be taken into account in the global carbon budget in an integrated manner.

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Zitierform:

Ito, Akihiko: Disequilibrium of terrestrial ecosystem CO<sub>2</sub> budget caused by disturbance-induced emissions and non-CO<sub>2</sub> carbon export flows: a global model assessment. 2019. Copernicus Publications.

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Rechteinhaber: Akihiko Ito

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