INTEGRATION BETWEEN SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE SPATIAL OBJECTS FOR DEVELOPING OMAN 3D SDI BASED ON THE CITYGML STANDARD
The paper investigates the capability to integrate the surface and subsurface 3D spatial objects data structure within the 3D spatial data infrastructure (3D SDI) based on the CityGML standards. In fact, a number of countries around the world have started applying the 3D city models for their planning and infrastructure management. While others are still working toward 3D SDI by using CityGML standards. Moreover, most of these initiatives focus on the surface spatial objects with less interest to model subsurface spatial objects. However, dealing with 3D SDI requires both surface and subsurface spatial objects with clear consideration on the issues and challenges in terms of the data structure. On the other hand, the study has used geospatial tools and databases such as FME, PostgreSQL-PostGIS, and 3D City Database to generate the 3D model and to test the capability for integrating the surface and subsurface 3D spatial objects data structure within the 3D SDI. This paper concludes by describing a framework that aims to integrate surface and subsurface 3D geospatial objects data structure in Oman SDI. The authors believe that there are possible solutions based on CityGML standards for surface and subsurface 3D spatial objects. Moreover, solving the issues in data structure can establish a better vision and open new avenues for the 3D SDI.