Trapping of HCl and oxidised organic trace gases in growing ice at temperatures relevant to cirrus clouds
The uptake of hydrochloric acid (HCl), ethanol (C2H5OH), 1-butanol (1-C4H9OH), formic acid HC(O)OH and trifluoroacetic (CF3C(O)OH) acid to growing ice surfaces was investigated at temperatures between 194 and 228 K. HCl displayed extensive, continuous uptake during ice growth, which was strongly dependent on the ice growth velocity, the temperature of the ice surface and the gas phase concentration of HCl. Trifluoroacetic acid was also observed to be trapped in growing ice, albeit approximately an order of magnitude less efficiently than HCl, whereas the adsorption and desorption kinetics of ethanol, 1-butanol, formic acid on ice were not measurably different to those for non-growing ice, even at very high ice growth rates. We present a parameterisation of the uptake coefficient for HCl on growing ice films (γtrap) and compare the results to an existing framework that describes the non-equilibrium trapping of trace gases on ice. The trapping of HCl in growing ice crystals in the atmosphere is assessed and compared to the gas and ice phase partitioning resulting from equilibrium surface adsorption and solubility.