Multi-point galactic cosmic ray measurements between 1 and 4.5 AU over a full solar cycle
The radiation data collected by the Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) aboard ESA missions INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory), Rosetta, Herschel, Planck and Proba-1, and by the high-energy neutron detector (HEND) instrument aboard Mars Odyssey, are analysed with an emphasis on characterising galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the inner heliosphere. A cross calibration between all sensors was performed for this study, which can also be used in subsequent works. We investigate the stability of the SREM detectors over long-term periods. The radiation data are compared qualitatively and quantitatively with the corresponding solar activity. Based on INTEGRAL and Rosetta SREM data, a GCR helioradial gradient of 2.96 % AU−1 is found between 1 and 4.5 AU. In addition, the data during the last phase of the Rosetta mission around comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko were studied in more detail. An unexpected yet unexplained 8 % reduction of the Galactic Comic Ray flux measured by Rosetta SREM in the vicinity of the comet is noted.