THE LADM-BASED 3D UNDERGROUND UTILITY MAPPING: CASE STUDY IN SINGAPORE
A digital twin can be defined as a realistic representation of something physical. To improve decision making, a reliable digital twin of the underground is required. Utilities represent a significant portion of physical assets existing underground. Most of these utilities are situated in the relatively shallow layers of the underground, up to a few meters below the surface. The reliable information on subsurface utilities has clear benefits all throughout the life cycle of state land, resulting in efficient decision-making processes, cost savings, and additional revenues for land administration professionals. However, the lack of a reliable map of subsurface utilities lead to ill-informed decisions, costly information gathering, and missed business potential. This paper will share a case study of the 3D underground utility mapping workflow from data capture to usage in Singapore. The new data is collected by the Pegasus: Stream, a mobile mapping platform which captures above and underground data using the photo, laser and ground penetrating radar technology. Based on the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) 3D underground utility data model, the new collected data is used with the existing utility and cadastral data for land administration. This study case expects to explore the reasonable workflow of 3D underground utility mapping to provide reliable information for land administration.