Parameter calibration and stomatal conductance formulation comparison for boreal forests with adaptive population importance sampler in the land surface model JSBACH
We calibrated the JSBACH model with six different stomatal conductance formulations using measurements from 10 FLUXNET coniferous evergreen sites in the boreal zone. The parameter posterior distributions were generated by the adaptive population importance sampler (APIS); then the optimal values were estimated by a simple stochastic optimisation algorithm. The model was constrained with in situ observations of evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP). We identified the key parameters in the calibration process. These parameters control the soil moisture stress function and the overall rate of carbon fixation. The JSBACH model was also modified to use a delayed effect of temperature for photosynthetic activity in spring. This modification enabled the model to correctly reproduce the springtime increase in GPP for all conifer sites used in this study. Overall, the calibration and model modifications improved the coefficient of determination and the model bias for GPP with all stomatal conductance formulations. However, only the coefficient of determination was clearly improved for ET. The optimisation resulted in best performance by the Bethy, Ball–Berry, and the Friend and Kiang stomatal conductance models. We also optimised the model during a drought event at a Finnish Scots pine forest site. This optimisation improved the model behaviour but resulted in significant changes to the parameter values except for the unified stomatal optimisation model (USO). Interestingly, the USO demonstrated the best performance during this event.