Geomagnetic storm and equatorial spread-F
In August 2000, a new ionospheric sounding station was established at Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S), Brazil, by the University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP). Another ionospheric sounding station was established at Palmas (10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S), Brazil, in April 2002, by UNIVAP in collaboration with the Lutheran University Center of Palmas (CEULP), Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA). Both the stations are equipped with digital ionosonde of the type known as Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI). In order to study the effects of geomagnetic storms on equatorial spread-F, we present and discuss three case studies, two from the ionospheric sounding observations at Sao Jose dos Campos (September and November 2000) and one from the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations at Sao Jose dos Campos and Palmas (July 2003). Salient features from these ionospheric observations are presented and discussed in this paper. It has been observed that sometimes (e.g. 4-5 November 2000) the geomagnetic storm acts as an inhibitor (high strong spread-F season), whereas at other times (e.g. 11-12 July 2003) they act as an initiator (low strong spread-F season), possibly due to corresponding changes in the quiet and disturbed drift patterns during different seasons.