Inverse modeling of emissions for local photooxidant pollution: Testing a new methodology with kriging constraints
A new methodology for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a local scale is tested. The inversion constraints are provided by a kriging technique used in air quality forecast in the Paris area, which computes an analyzed concentration field from network measurements and the first-guess simulation of a CTM. The inverse developed here is based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint to perform 4-D integration. The methodology is validated on synthetic cases inverting emission fluxes. It is shown that the information provided by the analyzed concentrations is sufficient to reach a mathematically acceptable solution to the optimization, even when little information is available in the measurements. As compared to the use of measurements alone or of measurements and a background matrix, the use of kriging leads to a more homogeneous distribution of the corrections, both in space and time. Moreover, it is then possible to double the accuracy of the inversion by performing two kriging-optimization cycles. Nevertheless, kriging analysis cannot compensate for a very important lack of information in the measurements.