Use of remote sensing and seismotectonic parameters for seismic hazard analysis of Bangalore
Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) for the Bangalore, India has been carried out by considering the past earthquakes, assumed subsurface fault rupture lengths and point source synthetic ground motion model. The sources have been identified using satellite remote sensing images and seismotectonic atlas map of India and relevant field studies. Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) has been determined by considering the regional seismotectonic activity in about 350 km radius around Bangalore. The seismotectonic map has been prepared by considering the faults, lineaments, shear zones in the area and past moderate earthquakes of more than 470 events having the moment magnitude of 3.5 and above. In addition, 1300 number of earthquake tremors having moment magnitude of less than 3.5 has been considered for the study. Shortest distance from the Bangalore to the different sources is measured and then Peak Horizontal Acceleration (PHA) is calculated for the different sources and moment magnitude of events using regional attenuation relation for peninsular India. Based on Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relationship, subsurface fault rupture length of about 3.8% of total length of the fault shown to be matching with past earthquake events in the area. To simulate synthetic ground motions, Boore (1983, 2003) SMSIM programs have been used and the PHA for the different locations is evaluated. From the above approaches, the PHA of 0.15 g was established. This value was obtained for a maximum credible earthquake having a moment magnitude of 5.1 for a source Mandya-Channapatna-Bangalore lineament. This particular source has been identified as a vulnerable source for Bangalore. From this study, it is very clear that Bangalore area can be described as seismically moderately active region. It is also recommended that southern part of Karnataka in particular Bangalore, Mandya and Kolar, need to be upgraded from current Indian Seismic Zone II to Seismic Zone III. Acceleration time history (ground motion) has been generated using synthetic earthquake model by considering the revised regional seismotectonic parameters. The rock level PHA map for Bangalore has been prepared and these maps are useful for the purpose of seismic microzonation, ground response analysis and design of important structures.