Origin and influence of PM 10 in urban and in rural environments
The paper presents an estimate of emission source influence on PM 10 concentrations in Berlin. Particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10) is a conglomerate of different chemical components related to distinct sources and physico-chemical processes in the atmosphere and lithosphere. Emission reduction thus has temporally and spatially varying effects on different scales. Urban PM 10 concentrations are heavily influenced by long range transport (up to 70%) from remote source areas, whereas rural air pollution is strongly determined by urban emissions. By means of emission reduction scenario simulations with a chemistry-transport-model it has been found that on average two third of the urban background concentrations in Berlin are due to Berlin-specific emissions. This percentage varies strongly considering primary and secondary components: only about 5% of secondary PM 10 concentrations are related to local emissions, while approximately 70% of primary concentrations stem from the urban sources. City related emissions influence homogenously the rural air-pollution concentrations, but with different ranges of influence.