Semidiurnal tidal signature in sporadic E occurrence rates derived from GPS radio occultation measurements at higher midlatitudes
GPS (Global Positioning System) Radio occultation (RO) measurements from CHAMP, GRACE and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites at Northern Hemisphere midlatitides (50°–55° N) are analysed to obtain the diurnal variation of sporadic E layer occurrence frequency in 2006 and 2007. Interconnections with zonal wind shears measured by meteor radar at Collm (51.3° N, 13° E), Germany, are investigated. According to theory, maximum Es occurrence is expected when the zonal wind shear, which is mainly produced by the semidiurnal tide in midlatitudes, is negative. This is confirmed by the present measurements and analysis.