Results of Russian geomagnetic observatories in the 19th century: magnetic activity, 1841–1862
Hourly (spot readings) magnetic data (H- and D-components) were digitized from Russian yearbook tables for the years 1850–1862 from four observatories. The pdf pictures for digitization were taken by a normal digital camera. The database obtained consists of about 900 000 single data points. The time series of hourly magnetic values reveal slow secular variations (declination only) as well as transient and regular geomagnetic variations of external origin. The quality and homogeneity of the data is satisfactory. Daily Ak-indices were calculated using the index algorithm that has been earlier applied to 19th century data from Helsinki (Finland) as well as modern magnetic observatory recordings. The activity index series derived from the Russian data is consistent with earlier activity index series for 1850–1862. The digitized index data series derived in this study was extended back to 1841 by including magnetic C9 activity index data available from a Russian observatory (St. Petersburg). Magnetic data rescued here is well suitable for various reconstructions for studies of the long-term variation of the space weather in the 19th century.