TOWARD A GLOBAL BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT OF SPOT 5 – HRS IMAGES
The HRS (High Resolution Stereoscopic) instrument carried on SPOT 5 enables quasi-simultaneous acquisition of stereoscopic images on wide segments – 120 km wide – with two forward and backward-looking telescopes observing the Earth with an angle of 20° ahead and behind the vertical. For 8 years IGN (Institut Géographique National) has been developing techniques to achieve spatiotriangulation of these images. During this time the capacities of bundle adjustment of SPOT 5 – HRS spatial images have largely improved. Today a global single block composed of about 20,000 images can be computed in reasonable calculation time. The progression was achieved step by step: first computed blocks were only composed of 40 images, then bigger blocks were computed. Finally only one global block is now computed. In the same time calculation tools have improved: for example the adjustment of 2,000 images of North Africa takes about 2 minutes whereas 8 hours were needed two years ago. To reach such a result a new independent software was developed to compute fast and efficient bundle adjustments. In the same time equipment – GCPs (Ground Control Points) and tie points – and techniques have also evolved over the last 10 years. Studies were made to get recommendations about the equipment in order to make an accurate single block. Tie points can now be quickly and automatically computed with SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) techniques. Today the updated equipment is composed of about 500 GCPs and studies show that the ideal configuration is around 100 tie points by square degree. With such an equipment, the location of the global HRS block becomes a few meters accurate whereas non adjusted images are only 15 m accurate. This paper will describe the methods used in IGN Espace to compute a global single block composed of almost 20,000 HRS images, 500 GCPs and several million of tie points in reasonable calculation time. Many advantages can be found to use such a block. Because the global block is unique it becomes easier to manage the historic and the different evolutions of the computations (new images, new GCPs or tie points). The location is now unique and consequently coherent all around the world, avoiding steps and artifacts on the borders of DSMs (Digital Surface Models) and OrthoImages historically calculated from different blocks. No extrapolation far from GCPs in the limits of images is done anymore. Using the global block as a reference will allow new images from other sources to be easily located on this reference.