Organisation of breeding under difficult framework conditions – the case of smallholder pig breeding in mountainous areas in Northwest Vietnam
The concentration process in the international livestock breeding industry has led to an increasing competitive pressure for existing regional livestock breeding institutions. This represents an almost insuperable barrier for the competitive organisation of livestock breeding under difficult framework conditions, particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed at identifying possibilities how to develop the organisation of livestock breeding under difficult framework conditions, taking smallholder pig breeding in mountainous areas in Northwest Vietnam as example. Information was collected from group discussions with small-scale pig producers in Son La province and interviews in various private and public breeding institutions across northern Vietnam, complemented by information from documents. Results show that smallholder pig breeding is influenced by numerous external private and public factors, respectively institutions. These include small private boar keepers and medium-sized commercial pig farms at village and district level, but also globally acting private breeding companies and relevant legislations. Considering the identified institutional framework situation of smallholder pig breeding at village level and the generally positive attitude of smallholders towards cooperative structures, the establishment of boar keeper cooperatives is recommended as a first step in the development of a competitive breeding organisation at village level. Altogether, the current situation of smallholder pig breeding at village level makes the establishment of village breeding programmes reasonable, given a more rigorous implementation of supportive legislations that promote and recognise the self-determination of the proposed cooperative breeding organisations.