On the multi-scale nature of large geomagnetic storms: an empirical mode decomposition analysis
Complexity and multi-scale are very common properties of several geomagnetic time series. On the other hand, it is amply demonstrated that scaling properties of geomagnetic time series show significant changes depending on the geomagnetic activity level. Here, we study the multi-scale features of some large geomagnetic storms by applying the empirical mode decomposition technique. This method, which is alternative to traditional data analysis and is designed specifically for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data, is applied to long time series of Sym-H index relative to periods including large geomagnetic disturbances. The spectral and scaling features of the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) into which Sym-H time series can be decomposed, as well as those of the Sym-H time series itself, are studied considering different geomagnetic activity levels. The results suggest an increase of dynamical complexity and multi-scale properties for intermediate geomagnetic activity levels.