Effect of solar cycle on topside ion temperature measured by SROSS C2 and ROCSAT 1 over the Indian equatorial and low latitudes
The effect of solar activity on the diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of ion temperature Ti and its relationship with corresponding ion density Ni over the Indian low and equatorial topside ionosphere within 17.5° S to 22.5° N magnetic latitudes are being investigated, combining the data from SROSS C2 and ROCSAT 1 for the 9-year period from 1995 to 2003 during solar cycle 23. Ti varies between 800 K and 1100 K during nighttime and rises to peak values of ~1800 K in the post sunrise hours. Daytime Ti varies from 1000 K to 1500 K. The time of occurrence, magnitude and duration of the morning enhancement show distinct seasonal bias. For example, in the June solstice, Ti increases to ~1650 K at ~06:00 h and exhibits a daytime plateau till 17:00 LT. In the equinoxes, enhanced ion temperature is observed for a longer duration in the morning. There is also a latitudinal asymmetry in the ion temperature distribution. In the equinoxes, the daytime Ti is higher at off equatorial latitudes and lower over the Equator, while in the solstices, Ti exhibits a north–south gradient during daytime. Nighttime Ti is found to be higher over the Equator. Daytime ion temperature exhibits insignificant positive correlation with F10.7 cm solar flux, while nighttime ion temperature decreases with increase in solar flux. Daytime ion temperature and ion density are negatively correlated during solar minimum, while nighttime Ti does not exhibit any correlation. However, during high solar activity, significant positive correlation of Ti with Ni has been observed over the Equator, while at 10° S and 10° N temperature and density exhibit significant negative correlation. The neutral temperature Tn derived from the MSISE 90 model is found to be higher than measured Ti during nighttime, while daytime Ti is higher than model Tn.