Simultaneous observations of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances on the nightside and dayside middle latitude
In this paper, we present further observational evidence for the transpolar propagation of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) from their nightside source region to the dayside reported by Cai et al. (2011). Slant total electron content (STEC) observed by longitudinally aligned GPS receiver chains in North American and European sectors was analyzed to demonstrate presences of LSTIDs at both nightside and dayside mid-latitude. Signatures of TID were inferred from phase difference in time series of STEC perturbations (TECP) derived from measurements of ground-based GPS receivers, which are separated by hundreds of kilometers longitudinally. Periods of the daytime and nighttime ionospheric disturbances were estimated to be around 128 min, being in good agreement with that of the transpolar AGW (atmospheric gravity wave) recorded by EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association)/ESR (EISCAT Svalbard Radar) radars. On the dayside, the LSTID moved equatorward with an average phase speed of ~440 m s −1. In North American sector, however, southward speed of the nighttime LSTID was much slower, being around 160 m s −1. We suggest that the observed daytime and nighttime mid-latitude LSTIDs are likely to have the same source region, being located somewhere at nighttime auroral latitude. Having been launched on the nightside, the waves propagate simultaneously equatorward and poleward. The equatorward-moving waves are recorded by GPS receiver chain in North American sector. The poleward-moving waves, however, cross the polar cap from nightside to dayside and then are detected consecutively at high and mid-latitudes by EISCAT/ESR radars and GPS receiver chains, respectively.