PORT, a CESM tool for the diagnosis of radiative forcing
The Parallel Offline Radiative Transfer (PORT) model is a stand-alone tool, driven by model-generated datasets, that can be used for any radiation calculation that the underlying radiative transfer schemes can perform, such as diagnosing radiative forcing. In its present distribution, PORT isolates the radiation code from the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). The current configuration focuses on CAM4 radiation with the constituents as represented in present-day conditions in CESM1, along with their optical properties. PORT includes an implementation of stratospheric temperature adjustment under the assumption of fixed dynamical heating, which is necessary to compute radiative forcing in addition to the more straightforward instantaneous radiative forcing. PORT can be extended to use radiative constituent distributions from other models or model simulations. Ultimately, PORT can be used with various radiative transfer models. As illustrations of the use of PORT, we perform the computation of radiative forcing from doubling of carbon dioxide, from the change of tropospheric ozone concentration from the year 1850 to 2000, and from present-day aerosols. The radiative forcing from tropospheric ozone (with respect to 1850) generated by a collection of model simulations under the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project is found to be 0.34 (with an intermodel standard deviation of 0.07) W m −2. Present-day aerosol direct forcing (relative to no aerosols) is found to be −1.3 W m −2.