Using a cloud electrification model to study relationships between lightning activity and cloud microphysical structure
In this study a one-dimensional numerical cloud electrification model, called the Explicit Microphysics Thunderstorm Model (EMTM), is used to find quantitative relationships between the simulated electrical activity and microphysical properties in convective clouds. The model, based on an explicit microphysics scheme coupled to an ice–ice noninductive electrification scheme, allows us to interpret the connection of cloud microphysical structure with charge density distribution within the cloud, and to study the full evolution of the lightning activity (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) in relation to different environmental conditions. Thus, we apply the model to a series of different case studies over continental Europe and the Mediterranean region. We first compare, for selected case studies, the simulated lightning activity with the data provided by the ground-based Lightning Detection Network (LINET) in order to verify the reliability of the model and its limitations, and to assess its ability to reproduce electrical activity consistent with the observations. Then, using all simulations, we find a correlation between some key microphysical properties and cloud electrification, and derive quantitative relationships relating simulated flash rates to minimum thresholds of graupel mass content and updrafts. Finally, we provide outlooks on the use of such relationships and comments on the future development of this study.