Ultrasound-based density determination via buffer rod techniques: a review
The review presents the fundamental ideas, assumptions and methods of non-invasive density measurements via ultrasound at solid–liquid interface. Since the first investigations in the 1970s there has been steady progress with regard to both the technological and methodical aspects. In particular, the technology in electronics has reached such a high level that industrial applications come within reach. In contrast, the accuracies have increased slowly from 1–2% to 0.15% for constant temperatures and to 0.4% for dynamic temperature changes. The actual work reviews all methodical aspects, and highlights the lack of clarity in major parts of the measurement principle: simplifications in the physical basics, signal generation and signal processing. With respect to process application the accuracy of the temperature measurement and the presence of temperature gradients have been identified as a major source of uncertainty. In terms of analytics the main source of uncertainty is the reflection coefficient, and as a consequence of this, the amplitude accuracy in time or frequency domain.