On kinematics of very steep waves
Experiments on extremely steep deterministic waves generated in a large wave tank by focusing of a broad-banded wave train serve as a motivation for the theoretical analysis of the conditions leading to wave breaking. Particular attention is given to the crest of the steepest wave where both the horizontal velocity and the vertical acceleration attain their maxima. Analysis is carried out up to the third order in wave steepness. The apparent, Eulerian and Lagrangian accelerations are computed for wave parameters observed in experiments. It is demonstrated that for a wave group with a wide spectrum, the crest propagation velocity differs significantly from both the phase and the group velocities of the peak wave. Conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of various criteria for wave breaking.