The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification
Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive accompanying changes in the marine carbonate system as carbon dioxide (CO 2) enters seawater and alters ocean pH (termed "ocean acidification"). However, such changes do not occur in isolation, and other environmental factors have the potential to modulate the consequences of altered ocean chemistry. Given that physiological mechanisms used by organisms to confront acidification can be energetically costly, we explored the potential for food supply to influence the response of Olympia oyster ( Ostrea lurida) larvae to ocean acidification. In laboratory experiments, we reared oyster larvae under a factorial combination of pCO 2 and food level. Elevated pCO 2 had negative effects on larval growth, total dry weight, and metamorphic success, but high food availability partially offset these influences. The combination of elevated pCO 2 and low food availability led to the greatest reduction in larval performance. However, the effects of food and pCO 2 interacted additively rather than synergistically, indicating that they operated independently. Despite the potential for abundant resources to counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, impacts were never completely negated, suggesting that even under conditions of enhanced primary production and elevated food availability, impacts of ocean acidification may still accrue in some consumers.