Non-residential water demand model validated with extensive measurements and surveys
Existing Dutch guidelines for the design of the drinking water and hot water system of non-residential buildings are based on outdated assumptions on peak water demand or on unfounded assumptions on hot water demand. They generally overestimate peak demand values required for the design of an efficient and reliable water system. Recently, a procedure was developed based on the end-use model SIMDEUM to derive design-demand-equations for peak demand values of both cold and hot water during various time steps for several types and sizes of non-residential buildings, viz. offices, hotels and nursing homes. In this paper, the design-demand-equations are validated with measurements of cold and hot water patterns on a per second base and with surveys. The good correlation between the simulated water demand patterns and the measured patterns indicates that the basis of the design-demand-equations, the SIMDEUM simulated standardised buildings, is solid. Surveys were held to investigate whether the construction of the standardised buildings based on the dominant variable corresponds with practice. Surveys show that it is difficult to find relationships to equip the standardised buildings with users and appliances. However, the validation proves that with a proper estimation of the number of users and appliances in only the dominant functional room of the standardised buildings, SIMDEUM renders a realistic cold and hot water diurnal demand pattern. Furthermore, the new design-demand-equations based on these standardised buildings give a better prediction of the measured peak values for cold water flow than the existing guidelines. Moreover, the new design-demand-equations can predict hot water use well. In this paper it is illustrated that the new design-demand-equations lead to reliable and improved designs of building installations and water heater capacity, resulting in more hygienic and economical installations.