The GREENROOF module (v7.3) for modelling green roof hydrological and energetic performances within TEB
The need to prepare cities for climate change adaptation requests the urban modeller community to implement sustainable adaptation strategies within their models to be tested against specific city morphologies and scenarios. Greening city roofs is part of these strategies. In this context, the GREENROOF module for TEB (town energy balance) has been developed to model the interactions between buildings and green roof systems at the scale of the city. This module, which combines the ISBA model (Interaction between Soil Biosphere and Atmosphere) and TEB, allows for one to describe an extensive green roof composed of four functional layers (vegetation – grasses or sedums; substrate; retention/drainage layers; and artificial roof layers) and to model vegetation-atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and momentum, as well as the hydrological fluxes throughout the substrate and the drainage layers, and the thermal fluxes throughout the natural and artificial layers of the green roof. TEB-GREENROOF (SURFEX v7.3) should therefore be able to represent the impact of climate forcings on the functioning of green roof vegetation and, conversely, the influence of the green roof on the local climate. An evaluation of GREENROOF is performed for a case study located in Nancy (France) which consists of an instrumented extensive green roof with sedums and substrate and drainage layers that are typical of this kind of construction. After calibration of the drainage layer hydrological characteristics, model results show good dynamics for the substrate water content and the drainage at the green roof base, with nevertheless a tendency to underestimate the water content and overestimate the drainage. This does not impact too much the green roof temperatures, which present a good agreement with observations. Nonetheless GREENROOF tends to overestimate the soil temperatures and their amplitudes, but this effect is less important in the drainage layer. These results are encouraging with regard to modelling the impact of green roofs on thermal indoor comfort and energy consumption at the scale of cities, for which GREENROOF will be running with the building energy version of TEB – TEB-BEM. Moreover, with the green roof studied for GREENROOF evaluation being a type of extensive green roof widespread in cities, the type of hydrological characteristics highlighted for the case study will be used as the standard configuration to model extensive green roof impacts at the scale of cities.