Wind-wave amplification mechanisms: possible models for steep wave events in finite depth
We extend the Miles mechanism of wind-wave generation to finite depth. A β-Miles linear growth rate depending on the depth and wind velocity is derived and allows the study of linear growth rates of surface waves from weak to moderate winds in finite depth h. The evolution of β is plotted, for several values of the dispersion parameter kh with k the wave number. For constant depths we find that no matter what the values of wind velocities are, at small enough wave age the β-Miles linear growth rates are in the known deep-water limit. However winds of moderate intensities prevent the waves from growing beyond a critical wave age, which is also constrained by the water depth and is less than the wave age limit of deep water. Depending on wave age and wind velocity, the Jeffreys and Miles mechanisms are compared to determine which of them dominates. A wind-forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived and the Akhmediev, Peregrine and Kuznetsov–Ma breather solutions for weak wind inputs in finite depth h are obtained.