Near-surface diurnal warming simulations: validation with high resolution profile measurements
Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important property for governing the exchange of energy between the ocean and the atmosphere. Common in situ methods of measuring SST often require a cool-skin and warm-layer adjustment in the presence of diurnal warming effects. A critical requirement for an ocean submodel is that it can simulate the change in SST over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. In this paper we use high-resolution near-surface profiles of SST to validate simulated near-surface temperature profiles from a modified version of the Kantha and Clayson 1-D mixed-layer model. Additional model enhancements such as the incorporation of a more recent parameterization of turbulence generated by wave breaking and a recent solar absorption model are also validated. The model simulations show a strong variability in highly stratified conditions, with different models providing the best results depending on the specific criteria and conditions. In general, the models with enhanced wave breaking effects provided underestimated temperature profiles while the more coarse baseline and blended approaches produced the most accurate SST estimates.