Statistical analysis of radar observed F region irregularities from three longitudinal sectors
Equatorial Spread F (ESF) is a manifestation of ionospheric interchange instabilities in the nighttime equatorial F region. These instabilities generate plasma density irregularities with scale sizes ranging from centimetres to thousands of kilometres. The irregularities can be detected from a variety of instruments such as digisonde, coherent and incoherent scatter radars, in situ space probes, and airglow photometers. In the present study, occurrence statistics of the ESF, based on various parameters are presented using data obtained from the VHF radars located at three longitudinally separated equatorial stations: Christmas Island (2° N, 202.6° E, 2.9° N dip latitude), São Luís (2.59° S, 315.8° E, 0.5° S dip latitude) and Jicamarca (12° S, 283.1° E, 0.6° N dip latitude). The ESF parameters presented here are the onset altitude, onset time (onset refers to first appearance of signal in the radar field of view) of the bottom-type and plume, and the peak altitude of the plume. Recent studies have used these parameters to classify the spread F occurrence characteristics. The present study reveals novel features namely, the dependence of ESF parameters on the seasonal, solar flux, declination angle and longitudinal dependence from the three radar sites. In addition, we also present an empirical model to determine the nature of these ESF parameters as a function of the solar flux which may enable us to forecast (with 30 min to 1 h tolerance) the plume occurrence at any longitude located in between São Luís and Christmas Island.