MONITORING THE URBAN GROWTH OF DHAKA (BANGLADESH) BY SATELLITE IMAGERY IN FLOODING RISK MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE
There is large consensus that demographic changes, the lack of appropriate environmental policies and sprawling urbanization result in high vulnerability and exposure to the natural disasters.
This work reports some experiences of using multispectral satellite imagery to produce landuse/cover maps for the Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh, which is subject to frequent flooding events.The activity was conducted in collaboration with the non-profit organization ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action).
The Landsat images acquired in 2000, 2002 and 2009 were used to evaluate the urban growth in order to support risk assessment studies; to identify areas routinely flooded during the monsoon season, the image of October 2009 (the most critical month for the effects of rain) was compared with two images acquired in January and February 2010.
The analysis between 2000 and 2009 was able to quantify a very rapid growth of the metropolis, with an increase in built-up areas from 75 to 111 km 2. The analysis highlights also a sharp rise of Bare soil class, likely related to the construction of embankments for the creation of new building space; consequently a decrease of cultivated land was observed. In particular, these artificial islands have been invading flooding areas.
The change detection procedure also showed that the flooding in October 2009 affected about 20% (115 out of 591 km 2) of the entire study area; furthermore these areas became wetlands and farmland over the next three/four months.