Robust, multifunctional flood defenses in the Dutch rural riverine area
This paper reviews the possible functions as well as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for robust flood defenses in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands on the basis of the recent literature and case studies at five locations in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is planned. For each of the case studies semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders were conducted. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of a robust, multifunctional dike in comparison to a traditional dike appeared to be the more efficient space use due to the combination of different functions, a longer-term focus and greater safety.