Flood risk assessment: concepts, modelling, applications
Natural hazards have caused severe consequences to the natural, modified and human systems in the past. These consequences seem to increase with time due to both the higher intensity of the natural phenomena and the higher value of elements at risk. Among the water-related hazards, flood hazards have the most destructive impacts. The paper presents a new systemic paradigm for the assessment of flood hazard and flood risk in the riverine flood-prone areas. Special emphasis is given to the urban areas with mild terrain and complicated topography, in which 2-D fully dynamic flood modelling is proposed. Further, the EU flood directive is critically reviewed and examples of its implementation are presented. Some critical points in the flood directive implementation are also highlighted.