Stratospheric warming influence on the mesosphere/lower thermosphere as seen by the extended CMAM
The response of the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region to major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) is examined employing temperature, winds, NO X and CO constituents from the extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) with continuous incremental nudging below 10 hPa (~ 30 km). The model results considered cover high latitudes (60–85° N) from 10 to 150 km height for the December–March period of 2003/2004, 2005/2006 and 2008/2009, when some of the strongest SSWs in recent years were observed. NO X and CO are used as proxies for examining transport. Comparisons with ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment–Fourier Transform Spectrometer) satellite observations show that the model represents well the dynamics of the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region, the coupling of the stratosphere–mesosphere, and the NO X and CO transport. New information is obtained on the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere up to 150 km showing that the NO X volume mixing ratio in the 2003/2004 winter was very perturbed indicating transport from the lower atmosphere and intense mixing with large NO X influx from the thermosphere compared to 2006 and 2009. These results, together with those from other models and observations, clearly show the impact of stratospheric warmings on the thermosphere.