Modelling seasonal circulation and thermohaline structure of the Caspian Sea
The wind- and buoyancy-driven seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea is investigated for a better understanding of its basin-wide and mesoscale dynamics, mixing and transport. The model successfully reproduces the following basic elements of the circulation: the southward-flowing current systems along the eastern and western coasts, the upwelling along the eastern coast, the cyclonic circulation in the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS), especially in winter, and the cyclonic and anticyclonic cells of circulation in the South Caspian Sea (SCS). The observed seasonal variability of sea level and sea surface temperature (SST) is well reproduced. Mesoscale structures, not always evident from hydrographic observations, are identified.