The Mediterranean is becoming saltier
The deep waters of the western Mediterranean Sea have become saltier and warmer for at least the past 40 years at rates of about 0.015 and 0.04 °C per decade. Here we show that two processes contribute to these increases in temperature and salinity. On interannual timescales, deep water formation events in severe winters transmit increasingly salty intermediate waters into the deep water. The second process is a steady downward flux of heat and salt associated with salt finger mixing down through the halocline–thermocline that connects the Levantine Intermediate Water with the deep water. We illustrate these two processes with observations from repeat surveys of the western Mediterranean basin we have made over the past 10 years.