Equivalent circuit models of two-layer flexure beams with excitation by temperature, humidity, pressure, piezoelectric or piezomagnetic interactions
Two-layer flexure beams often serve as basic transducers in actuators and sensors. In this paper a generalized description of their stimuli-influenced mechanical behavior is derived. For small deflection angles this description includes a multi-port circuit or network representation with lumped elements for a beam part of finite length. A number of coupled finite beam parts model the dynamic behavior including the first natural frequencies of the beam. For piezoelectric and piezomagnetic interactions, reversible transducer models are developed. The piezomagnetic two-layer beam model is extended to include solenoid and planar coils. Linear network theory is applied in order to determine network parameters and to simplify the circuit representation. The resulting circuit model is the basis for a fast simulation of the dynamic system behavior with advanced circuit simulators and, thus, the optimization of the system. It is also a useful tool for understanding and explaining this multi-domain system through basic principles of general system theory.