Validation of XCH 4 derived from SWIR spectra of GOSAT TANSO-FTS with aircraft measurement data
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH
4), retrieved from Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectra, were validated by using aircraft measurement data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) program, and the GOSAT validation aircraft observation campaign over Japan. In the calculation of XCH
4 from aircraft measurements (aircraft-based XCH
4), other satellite data were used for the CH
4 profiles above the tropopause. We proposed a data-screening scheme for aircraft-based XCH
4 for reliable validation of GOSAT XCH
4. Further, we examined the impact of GOSAT SWIR column averaging kernels (CAK) on the aircraft-based XCH
4 calculation and found that the difference between aircraft-based XCH
4 with and without the application of the GOSAT CAK was less than ±9 ppb at maximum, with an average difference of −0.5 ppb.
We compared GOSAT XCH 4 Ver. 02.00 data retrieved within ±2° or ±5° latitude–longitude boxes centered at each aircraft measurement site with aircraft-based XCH 4 measured on a GOSAT overpass day. In general, GOSAT XCH 4 was in good agreement with aircraft-based XCH 4. However, over land, the GOSAT data showed a positive bias of 1.5 ppb (2.0 ppb) with a standard deviation of 14.9 ppb (16.0 ppb) within the ±2° (±5°) boxes, and over ocean, the average bias was 4.1 ppb (6.5 ppb) with a standard deviation of 9.4 ppb (8.8 ppb) within the ±2° (±5°) boxes. In addition, we obtained similar results when we used an aircraft-based XCH 4 time series obtained by curve fitting with temporal interpolation for comparison with GOSAT data.