Ordinal classification for efficient plant stress prediction in hyperspectral data
Detection of crop stress from hyperspectral images is of high importance for breeding and precision crop protection. However, the continuous monitoring of stress in phenotyping facilities by hyperspectral imagers produces huge amounts of uninterpreted data. In order to derive a stress description from the images, interpreting algorithms with high prediction performance are required. Based on a static model, the local stress state of each pixel has to be predicted. Due to the low computational complexity, linear models are preferable.
In this paper, we focus on drought-induced stress which is represented by discrete stages of ordinal order. We present and compare five methods which are able to derive stress levels from hyperspectral images: One-vs.-one Support Vector Machine (SVM), one-vs.-all SVM, Support Vector Regression (SVR), Support Vector Ordinal Regression (SVORIM) and Linear Ordinal SVM classification. The methods are applied on two data sets - a real world set of drought stress in single barley plants and a simulated data set. It is shown, that Linear Ordinal SVM is a powerful tool for applications which require high prediction performance under limited resources. It is significantly more efficient than the one-vs.-one SVM and even more efficient than the less accurate one-vs.-all SVM. Compared to the very compact SVORIM model, it represents the senescence process much more accurate.