Processes governing the mass balance of Chhota Shigri Glacier (western Himalaya, India) assessed by point-scale surface energy balance measurements
Some recent studies revealed that Himalayan glaciers were shrinking at an accelerated rate since the beginning of the 21st century. However, the climatic causes for this shrinkage remain unclear given that surface energy balance studies are almost nonexistent in this region. In this study, a point-scale surface energy balance analysis was performed using in situ meteorological data from the ablation zone of Chhota Shigri Glacier over two separate periods (August 2012 to February 2013 and July to October 2013) in order to understand the response of mass balance to climatic variables. Energy balance numerical modelling provides quantification of the surface energy fluxes and identification of the factors affecting glacier mass balance. The model was validated by comparing the computed and observed ablation and surface temperature data. During the summer-monsoon period, net radiation was the primary component of the surface energy balance accounting for 80 % of the total heat flux followed by turbulent sensible (13%), latent (5%) and conductive (2%) heat fluxes. A striking feature of the energy balance is the positive turbulent latent heat flux, suggesting re-sublimation of moist air at the glacier surface, during the summer-monsoon characterized by relatively high air temperature, high relative humidity and a continual melting surface. The impact of the Indian Summer Monsoon on Chhota Shigri Glacier mass balance has also been assessed. This analysis demonstrates that the intensity of snowfall events during the summer-monsoon plays a key role on surface albedo (melting is reduced in the case of strong snowfalls covering the glacier area), and thus is among the most important drivers controlling the annual mass balance of the glacier. The summer-monsoon air temperature, controlling the precipitation phase (rain versus snow and thus albedo), counts, indirectly, also among the most important drivers.