Absolute Vicarious Calibration of recently launched Indian Meteorological Satellite: INSAT-3D imager
Looking towards the advancements and popularity of remote sensing and an ever increasing need for the development of a variety of new and complex satellite sensors, it has become even more essential to continually upgrade the ability to provide absolute calibration of sensors. This article describes a simple procedure to implement post-launch calibration for VIS and SWIR channels of INSAT-3D imager over land site (Little Rann of Kutch (ROK), Gujarat) on three different days to account for characterization errors or undetermined post-launch changes in spectral response of the sensor. The measurements of field reflectance of study site (of extent ~6 km x 6 km) in the wavelength range 325–2500 nm, along with atmospheric parameters (Aerosol Optical Depth, Total Columnar Ozone, Water Vapor) and sensor spectral response functions, were input to the 6S radiative transfer model to simulate radiance at top of the atmosphere (TOA) for VIS and SWIR bands. The uncertainty in vicarious calibration coefficients due to measured spatial variability of field reflectance along with due to aerosol types were also computed for the INSAT-3D imager. The effect of surface anisotropy on TOA radiance was studied using a MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product covering the experimental site. The results show that there is no indication of change in calibration coefficients in INSAT- 3D imager, for VIS and SWIR band over Little ROK. Comparison made between the INSAT-3D imager measured radiance and 6S simulated radiance. Analysis shows that for clear sky days, the INSAT-3D imager overestimates TOA radiance in the VIS band by 5.1 % and in the SWIR band by 11.7 % with respect to 6S simulated radiance. For these bands, in the inverse mode, the 6S corrected surface reflectance was closer to field surface reflectance. It was found that site spatial variability was a critical factor in estimating change in sensor calibration coefficients and influencing uncertainty in TOA radiance for Little ROK.