Annual proxy data from Lago Grande di Monticchio (southern Italy) between 76 and 112 ka: new chronological constraints and insights on abrupt climatic oscillations
We present new annual sedimentological proxies and sub-annual element scanner data from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (MON) sediment record for the sequence 76–112 thousand years before present (ka). They are combined with the previously published decadal to centennial resolved pollen assemblage in order to provide a comprehensive reconstruction of six major abrupt stadial spells (MON 1–6) in the central Mediterranean during the early phase of the last glaciation. These climatic oscillations are defined by intervals of thicker varves and high Ti-counts and coincide with episodes of forest depletion interpreted as Mediterranean stadial conditions (cold winter/dry summer). Our chronology, labelled as MON-2014, has been updated for the study interval by tephrochronology and repeated and more precise varve counts and is independent from ice-core and speleothem chronologies. The high-resolution Monticchio data then have been compared in detail with the Greenland ice-core δ 18O record (NorthGRIP) and the northern Alps speleothem δ 18O calcite data (NALPS). Based on visual inspection of major changes in the proxy data, MON 2–6 are suggested to correlate with Greenland stadials (GS) 25–20. MON 1 (Woillard event), the first and shortest cooling spell in the Mediterranean after a long phase of stable interglacial conditions, has no counterpart in the Greenland ice core, but coincides with the lowest isotope values at the end of the gradual decrease in δ 18O ice in NorthGRIP during the second half of the Greenland interstadial (GI) 25. MON 3 is the least pronounced cold spell and shows gradual transitions, whereas its NorthGRIP counterpart GS 24 is characterized by sharp changes in the isotope records. MON 2 and MON 4 are the longest and most pronounced oscillations in the MON sediments in good agreement with their counterparts identified in the ice and spelethem records. The length of MON 4 (correlating with GS 22) supports the duration of stadial proposed by the NALPS timescales and suggests ca. 500 year longer duration than calculated by the ice-core chronologies GICC05 modelext and AICC2012. Absolute dating of the cold spells provided by the MON-2014 chronology shows good agreement among the MON-2014, the GICC05 modelext and the NALPS timescales for the period between 112 and 100 ka. In contrast, the MON-2014 varve chronology dates the oscillations MON 4 to MON 6 (92–76 ka) as ca. 3500 years older than the most likely corresponding stadials GS 22 to GS 20 by the other chronologies.