The numerical simulation on ionospheric perturbations in electric field before large earthquakes
Many observational results have shown electromagnetic abnormality in the ionosphere before large earthquakes. The theoretical simulation can help us to understand the internal mechanism of these anomalous electromagnetic signals resulted from seismic regions. In this paper, the horizontal and vertical components of electric and magnetic field at the topside ionosphere are simulated by using the full wave method that is based on an improved transfer matrix method in the lossy anisotropic horizontally stratified ionosphere. Taken account into two earthquakes with electric field perturbations recorded by the DEMETER satellite, the numerical results reveal that the propagation and penetration of ULF (ultra-low-frequency) electromagnetic waves into the ionosphere is related to the spatial distribution of electron and ion densities at different time and locations, in which the ion density has less effect than electron density on the field intensity. Compared with different frequency signals, the minimum values of electric and magnetic field excited by earthquakes can be detected by satellite in current detection capability have also been calculated, and the lower frequency wave can be detected easier.