Investigation of hydrological variability in the Korean Peninsula with the ENSO teleconnections
This study analyzes nonlinear behavior links with atmospheric teleconnections between hydrologic variables and climate indices using statistical models during warm season (June to September) over the Korean Peninsula (KP). The ocean-related major climate factor, which is the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was used to analyze the atmospheric teleconnections by principal component analysis (PCA) and a singular spectrum analysis (SSA). The nonlinear lag time correlations between climate indices and hydrologic variables are calculated by Mutual Information (MI) technique. The nonlinear correlation coefficients (CCs) by MI were higher than linear CCs, and ENSO shows a few months of lag time correlation. The warm season hydrologic variables in KP shows a significant increasing tendency during the warm pool (WP), and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño decaying years shows a significant decreasing tendency, while the La Niña year shows slightly above normal conditions, respectively. A better understanding of the relationship between climate indices and streamflow, and their local impacts can help to prepare for the river discharge management by water managers and scientists. Furthermore, these results provide useful data for policy makers and end-users to support long-range water resources prediction and water-related policy.