Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for biological analysis and food characterization: a review
Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in which a sinusoidal test voltage or current is applied to the sample under test to measure its impedance over a suitable frequency range, is a powerful technique to investigate the electrical properties of a large variety of materials. In practice, the measured impedance spectra, usually fitted with an equivalent electrical model, represent an electrical fingerprint of the sample providing an insight into its properties and behavior. EIS is used in a broad range of applications as a quick and easily automated technique to characterize solid, liquid, semiliquid, organic as well as inorganic materials. This paper presents an updated review of EIS main implementations and applications.