Measuring strain during a cylindrical grinding process using embedded sensors in a workpiece
This paper presents the results of using a sensor-integrated workpiece for in situ measurement of strain during an outer-diameter cylindrical grinding process. The motivation of this work is to measure in situ process parameters using integrated sensors in a workpiece in order to characterize the manufacturing process. Resistive sensors that operate on the same principle as conventional strain gauges were fabricated on wafers made of steel using standard microtechnology and later the wafers were diced to form unique sensor-integrated steel components (sensor inlays). These inlays are embedded into a groove on the top surface of a cylindrical workpiece using epoxy adhesive. The workpiece is also made of the same steel as the sensor wafers and has similar properties due to a heat treatment process, thereby maintaining the homogeneity of the material over the whole contact area. The sensor-integrated workpiece was used to perform experiments in a Studer S41 high-performance cylindrical grinding machine. The sensor response to the internal strain was recorded during every grinding step starting from a depth of 1 mm down to 2 mm from the top surface. Such an application of sensor integration in materials for in situ process monitoring can be used in other manufacturing processes as well and this can help to observe internal loads (mechanical or thermal) in manufacturing processes.