Evaluation of GPM IMERG Early, Late, and Final rainfall estimates using WegenerNet gauge data in southeastern Austria
The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products provide quasi-global (60° N–60° S) precipitation estimates, beginning March 2014, from the combined use of passive microwave (PMW) and infrared (IR) satellites comprising the GPM constellation. The IMERG products are available in the form of near-real-time data, i.e., IMERG Early and Late, and in the form of post-real-time research data, i.e., IMERG Final, after monthly rain gauge analysis is received and taken into account. In this study, IMERG version 3 Early, Late, and Final (IMERG-E,IMERG-L, and IMERG-F) half-hourly rainfall estimates are compared with gauge-based gridded rainfall data from the WegenerNet Feldbach region (WEGN) high-density climate station network in southeastern Austria. The comparison is conducted over two IMERG 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells, entirely covered by 40 and 39 WEGN stations each, using data from the extended summer season (April–October) for the first two years of the GPM mission. The entire data are divided into two rainfall intensity ranges (low and high) and two seasons (warm and hot), and we evaluate the performance of IMERG, using both statistical and graphical methods. Results show that IMERG-F rainfall estimates are in the best overall agreement with the WEGN data, followed by IMERG-L and IMERG-E estimates, particularly for the hot season. We also illustrate, through rainfall event cases, how insufficient PMW sources and errors in motion vectors can lead to wide discrepancies in the IMERG estimates. Finally, by applying the method of Villarini and Krajewski (2007), we find that IMERG-F half-hourly rainfall estimates can be regarded as a 25 min gauge accumulation, with an offset of +40 min relative to its nominal time.