A REVIEW ON CITIZEN SCIENCE (CITSCI) APPLICATIONS FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT
The traditional way of doing science has been changing with the recent movements on open science, open data and the world-wide spread of volunteer activities. With the help of technological advancements, in particular mobile technologies, do-it-yourself kits and free online education sources, ordinary citizens may contribute to scientific processes based on their interest and abilities. Citizen Science (CitSci) is an active research agenda which draws the interest of scientists from different disciplines. It investigates the various contributions that citizens could do to improve scientific process. These contributions are utilized in diverse areas ranging from biology to environmental monitoring to classification of galaxies, all of which have a spatiotemporal dimension. The emerging developments in spatial information science allow the public to understand their environment better and efficiently. In this way society would have the means to deal with complex modern problems including but not limited to water/air pollution monitoring and mapping a region after a natural disaster to aid relief and recovery efforts. In addition, there is a growing public demand for research projects involving CitSci; because such collaborative efforts can be critical to achieve sustainability goals. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the state-of-the art methods and applications where CitSci is a crucial component in different phases of disaster management, from environmental protection to risk analysis and aid provision. Use of CitSci methods in disaster situations can be vital for different reasons, such as acquisition of local and most current information, organization of help during emergency, development of instant rescue plans, accurate information dissemination, and monitoring of the post-disaster influences to the society and the environment. Open issues on the use of CitSci methods in disaster management, such as data quality, technical and management-related barriers, open-standards and interoperability, and volunteer engagement, will also be discussed.