APPLICATION OF GIS AND REMOTE SENSING TO MONITOR THE IMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ON THE COASTAL ZONE OF JAZAN CITY ON THE RED SEA, SAUDI ARABIA
Jazan city is a fast-growing coastal city in the southern part of Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Recently, it has encountered quick industrial development activities. To monitor these activities, the changes in coastal zone morphology explore over the last 30 years (1987–2017) using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Four satellite images (TM and ETM) acquired during these intervals were performed. Furthermore, a development and growth of the city were created based on direct digitizing from Google Earth Pro to identify the extension and expansion of the area of study during this period. The magnitudes of erosion, deposition, and landfilling at differential scales through the period of study were determined using photo-interpretation on the changes of surface area and the extension of the city landward. The results illustrated remarkable changes and shifting of shoreline seaward along the coast and extending of dwelling zone in the city. Erosion and accretion take place mostly in the earlier interval (1987–2000) in some parts of the coast followed by landfilling occurring in the northern and middle parts of the coastal area in the interval (2000–2013). However, the magnitudes were different from interval to interval. The relative changes were 14.33, 58.56, and 27.11 % at the periods from 1987–2000, 2000–2013, and 2013–2017, respectively. However, dwelling zone extended dramatically from 23.31 km 2 in 1987, to 25.32 km 2 in 2000, 63.37 km 2 in 2013, and to reach 67.90 km 2 in 2017. These changes probably attributed to human activities in the coastal area due to construct a new economic city in the northern part during the period between 2003 and 2013 along with different socio-economic activities. The tidal flat in front of the city is shrunk due to this landfilling. This landfilling has been destructed a wide range of mangrove ecozones and possibly impacted the biotics in the area.