Nitrate deposition and preservation in the snowpack along a traverse from coast to the ice sheet summit (Dome A) in East Antarctica

Shi, Guitao; Hastings, Meredith G.; Yu, Jinhai; Ma, Tianming; Hu, Zhengyi; An, Chunlei; Li, Chuanjin; Ma, Hongmei; Jiang, Su; Li, Yuansheng

Antarctic ice core nitrate (NOinline-formula M1inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg5c4cefaf8b78d41c1ce2f2ef151f712f tc-12-1177-2018-ie00001.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00001.png ) can provide a unique record of the atmospheric reactive nitrogen cycle. However, the factors influencing the deposition and preservation of NOinline-formula M2inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg53e1f98be2cdf70dbe180d95894fc6b5 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00002.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00002.png at the ice sheet surface must first be understood. Therefore, an intensive program of snow and atmospheric sampling was made on a traverse from the coast to the ice sheet summit, Dome A, East Antarctica. Snow samples in this observation include 120 surface snow samples (top inline-formula∼ 3 cm), 20 snow pits with depths of 150 to 300 cm, and 6 crystal ice samples (the topmost needle-like layer on Dome A plateau). The main purpose of this investigation is to characterize the distribution pattern and preservation of NOinline-formula M4inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg0723f17b5be9fc41c36a5585631feb47 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00003.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00003.png concentrations in the snow in different environments. Results show that an increasing trend of NOinline-formula M5inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg8c72af1edd6d67ed562efcaf5163d22b tc-12-1177-2018-ie00004.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00004.png concentrations with distance inland is present in surface snow, and NOinline-formula M6inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimga6a4c5911a740e8377438efb607d4b86 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00005.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00005.png is extremely enriched in the topmost crystal ice (with a maximum of 16.1 inline-formulaµeq Linline-formula−1). NOinline-formula M9inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg1933cd4f78557ae19e1c84fa4d0b5473 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00006.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00006.png concentration profiles for snow pits vary between coastal and inland sites. On the coast, the deposited NOinline-formula M10inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg78ed0f7e81615226176402cdd6a1afd5 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00007.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00007.png was largely preserved, and the archived NOinline-formula M11inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgfa1148a5a7ab62133104fb46bf612014 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00008.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00008.png fluxes are dominated by snow accumulation. The relationship between the archived NOinline-formula M12inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgee54bb0fff66afdafaf51bed1fde360d tc-12-1177-2018-ie00009.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00009.png and snow accumulation rate can be depicted well by a linear model, suggesting a homogeneity of atmospheric NOinline-formula M13inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimga192f22c747584054322d55d69a940ca tc-12-1177-2018-ie00010.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00010.png levels. It is estimated that dry deposition contributes 27–44 % of the archived NOinline-formula M14inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgad57fe4a8dcf7ebabf2d1e48d90b5292 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00011.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00011.png fluxes, and the dry deposition velocity and scavenging ratio for NOinline-formula M15inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg9f81e901bf06635e082f559a787da68a tc-12-1177-2018-ie00012.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00012.png were relatively constant near the coast. Compared to the coast, the inland snow shows a relatively weak correlation between archived NOinline-formula M16inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg06954914259a113e7faaa0d01a8ee756 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00013.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00013.png and snow accumulation, and the archived NOinline-formula M17inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg5a2143864edd3f7cf8f1639018917994 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00014.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00014.png fluxes were more dependent on concentration. The relationship between NOinline-formula M18inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg2a83a52cafded6cc529076279999d0cd tc-12-1177-2018-ie00015.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00015.png and coexisting ions (nssSOinline-formula M19inlinescrollmathml normal 4 normal 2 - 13pt17ptsvg-formulamathimg49798bc14746e7788afe38c7f4bc425f tc-12-1177-2018-ie00016.svg13pt17pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00016.png , Nainline-formula+ and Clinline-formula) was also investigated, and the results show a correlation between nssSOinline-formula M22inlinescrollmathml normal 4 normal 2 - 13pt17ptsvg-formulamathimgd290f1661057ae2dbc6fb8878fe6c5e2 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00017.svg13pt17pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00017.png (fine aerosol particles) and NOinline-formula M23inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgd4917cb251612ae03efebb0a66479930 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00018.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00018.png in surface snow, while the correlation between NOinline-formula M24inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgd615913ec88b34ee0c05b0f0374db64d tc-12-1177-2018-ie00019.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00019.png and Nainline-formula+ (mainly associated with coarse aerosol particles) is not significant. In inland snow, there were no significant relationships found between NOinline-formula M26inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgd96e0e0e6a6172a7d34ac185b1d0a8a7 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00020.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00020.png and the coexisting ions, suggesting a dominant role of NOinline-formula M27inlinescrollmathml normal 3 - 9pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgd4f68d92324ab64740c52d46a6e06853 tc-12-1177-2018-ie00021.svg9pt16pttc-12-1177-2018-ie00021.png recycling in determining the concentrations.

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Shi, Guitao / Hastings, Meredith G. / Yu, Jinhai / et al: Nitrate deposition and preservation in the snowpack along a traverse from coast to the ice sheet summit (Dome A) in East Antarctica. 2018. Copernicus Publications.

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