3D MODELLING OF A HISTORICAL BUILDING USING CLOSE-RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (RPAS)
The photogrammetric survey of architectural Cultural Heritage is a very useful and standard process in order to obtain accurate 3D data for the documentation and visualization of historical buildings. In particular, the integration of terrestrial close-range photogrammetry and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPASs) photogrammetry allows to create accurate and reliable 3D models of buildings and to monitor their state of conservation. The use of RPASs has indeed become more popular in Cultural Heritage survey to measure and detect areas that cannot normally be covered using terrestrial photogrammetry or terrestrial laser scanner.
The paper presents the results of a photogrammetric survey executed to document the monumental complex of Villa Lampedusa ai Colli in Palermo (Italy), one of the most important historical buildings of the town. An integrated survey by close-range photogrammetry and RPAS photogrammetry was planned and carried out to reconstruct the 3D digital model of the monumental complex. Different images configurations (terrestrial, aerial nadiral, aerial parallel and oblique to the façades) have been acquired; data have been processed to verify the accuracy of the photogrammetric survey as regards the camera calibration parameters and the number of Ground Control Points (GCPs) measured on building façades.
A very detailed 3D digital model and high-resolution ortho-images of the façades were obtained in order to carry out further analysis for historical studies, conservation and restoration project. The final 3D model of Villa Lampedusa ai Colli has been compared with a laser scanner 3D model to evaluate the quality of the photogrammetric approach.
Beyond a purely metric assessment, 3D textured model has employed to generate 2D representations, useful for documentation purpose and to highlight the most significant damaged areas. 3D digital models and 2D representations can effectively contribute to monitor the state of conservation of historical buildings and become a very useful support for preliminary restoration works.