An updated version of a gap-free monthly mean zonal mean ozone database

Hassler, Birgit; Kremser, Stefanie; Bodeker, Greg E.; Lewis, Jared; Nesbit, Kage; Davis, Sean M.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Dhomse, Sandip S.; Dameris, Martin

An updated and improved version of a global, vertically resolved, monthly mean zonal mean ozone database has been calculated – hereafter referred to as the BSVertOzone (Bodeker Scientific Vertical Ozone) database. Like its predecessor, it combines measurements from several satellite-based instruments and ozone profile measurements from the global ozonesonde network. Monthly mean zonal mean ozone concentrations in mixing ratio and number density are provided in 5inline-formula latitude bins, spanning 70 altitude levels (1 to 70 inline-formulakm), or 70 pressure levels that are approximately 1 inline-formulakm apart (878.4 to 0.046 inline-formulahPa). Different data sets or “tiers” are provided: Tier 0 is based only on the available measurements and therefore does not completely cover the whole globe or the full vertical range uniformly; the Tier 0.5 monthly mean zonal means are calculated as a filled version of the Tier 0 database where missing monthly mean zonal mean values are estimated from correlations against a total column ozone (TCO) database. The Tier 0.5 data set includes the full range of measurement variability and is created as an intermediate step for the calculation of the Tier 1 data where a least squares regression model is used to attribute variability to various known forcing factors for ozone. Regression model fit coefficients are expanded in Fourier series and Legendre polynomials (to account for seasonality and latitudinal structure, respectively). Four different combinations of contributions from selected regression model basis functions result in four different Tier 1 data sets that can be used for comparisons with chemistry–climate model (CCM) simulations that do not exhibit the same unforced variability as reality (unless they are nudged towards reanalyses). Compared to previous versions of the database, this update includes additional satellite data sources and ozonesonde measurements to extend the database period to 2016. Additional improvements over the previous version of the database include the following: (i) adjustments of measurements to account for biases and drifts between different data sources (using a chemistry-transport model, CTM, simulation as a transfer standard), (ii) a more objective way to determine the optimum number of Fourier and Legendre expansions for the basis function fit coefficients, and (iii) the derivation of methodological and measurement uncertainties on each database value are traced through all data modification steps. Comparisons with the ozone database from SWOOSH (Stratospheric Water and OzOne Satellite Homogenized data set) show good agreement in many regions of the globe. Minor differences are caused by different bias adjustment procedures for the two databases. However, compared to SWOOSH, BSVertOzone additionally covers the troposphere. Version 1.0 of BSVertOzone is publicly available at



Hassler, Birgit / Kremser, Stefanie / Bodeker, Greg E. / et al: An updated version of a gap-free monthly mean zonal mean ozone database. 2018. Copernicus Publications.


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