EXTENDING INDOOR OPEN STREET MAPPING ENVIRONMENTS TO NAVIGABLE 3D CITYGML BUILDING MODELS: EMERGENCY RESPONSE ASSESSMENT
Disaster scenarios in high-rise buildings such as the Address Downtown, Dubai or Grenfell Tower, London have showed ones again the importance of data information availability for emergency management in buildings. 3D visualization of indoor routing services using extensive and high quality geographic data sources is essential for spatial analysis in emergency responses. In order to facilitate emergency response simulations, a combination of geometrical, graphical and semantic information is essential. Successful and efficient emergency evacuation responses is facilitated by the availability of both digital static and dynamic information of the incident site. However, interruptions may be encountered with the availability of dynamic data, where static data developed using indoor navigation ontologies serve as an alternative to inform the first responders. Thus, it is necessary to obtain a firm, interactive and quasi-realistic virtual simulation of the building environments. Voxelized CityGML models imported into voxel based hazard simulation systems fits well into the simulation algorithm requirements (Groger et al., 2008; Moreno et.al, 2010). Therefore, the research investigates an alternative platform for generating CityGML spatial analysis models. LoD4 models are developed using Computer Aided Design (Auto CAD) 2D files, crowdsourced geo-data (OpenStreetMap) and open source tools. A combination of software packages is utilized for 3D reconstruction of building interiors. This process is achieved through a Java application developed by researchers at Heidelberg University. Conclusions drawn from the research validate the 3D CityGML model generation process as an international standard to effectively enhance the outcome of emergency evacuation simulations of high rise buildings.